References

 

CHILDBEARING-ASSOCIATED RISKS AND STRATEGIES FOR THE PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT OF STRESS URINARY INCONTINENCE
AGE-ASSOCIATED RISKS AND STRATEGIES FOR THE PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT OF STRESS URINARY INCONTINENCE IN COMMUNITY-DWELLING OLDER WOMEN
APPENDIX

 

CHILDBEARING-ASSOCIATED RISKS
AND STRATEGIES FOR THE PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT
OF STRESS URINARY INCONTINENCE


Janis M. Miller, PhD, APRN

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan

References

1. Mason L, Glenn S, Walton I, Appleton C. The prevalence of stress incontinence during pregnancy and following delivery. Midwifery. 1999;15:120-128.

2. Viktrup L. The risk of lower urinary tract symptoms five years after the first delivery. Neurourol Urodyn. 2002;21:2-29.

3. Wilson PD, Herbison RM, Herbison GP. Obstetric practice and the prevalence of urinary incontinence three months after delivery. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1996;103:154-161.

4. Marshall K, Thompson KA, Walsh DM, Baxter GD. Incidence of urinary incontinence and constipation during pregnancy and postpartum: survey of current findings at the Rotunda Lying-In Hospital. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1998;105:400-402.

5. Persson J, Wolner-Hanssen P, Rydhstroem H. Obstetric risk factors for stress urinary incontinence: a population-based study. Obstet Gynecol. 2000;96:440-445.

6. Handa VL, Harris TA, Ostergard DR. Protecting the pelvic floor: obstetric management to prevent incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse. Obstet Gynecol. 1996;88:470-478.

7. Dannecker C, Anthuber C. The effects of childbirth on the pelvic-floor. J Perinat Med. 2000;28:175-184.

8. Groutz A, Rimon E, Peled S, et al. Cesarean section: does it really prevent the development of postpartum stress urinary incontinence? A prospective study of 363 women one year after their first delivery. Neurourol Urodyn. 2004;23:2-6.

9. Alling Moller L, Lose G, Jorgensen T. Risk factors for lower urinary tract symptoms in women 40 to 60 years of age. Obstet Gynecol. 2000;96:446-451.

10. Chiarelli P, Brown WJ. Leaking urine in Australian women: prevalence and associated conditions. Women Health. 1999;29:1-13.

11. Shafik A, El-Sibai O. Study of the levator ani muscle in the multipara: role of the levator dysfunction in defecation disorders. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2002;22:187-192.

12. Rasmussen KL, Krue S, Johansson LE, Knudsen HJ, Agger AO. Obesity as a predictor of postpartum urinary symptoms. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1997;76:359-362.

13. Arya LA, Jackson ND, Myers DL, Verma A. Risk of new-onset urinary incontinence after forceps and vacuum delivery in primiparous women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001;185:1318-1323.

14. Lien K, Mooney B, DeLancey JO, Ashton-Miller JA. Levator ani muscle stretch induced by simulated vaginal birth. Obstet Gynecol. 2004;103:31-40.

15. Sampselle CM, Hines S. Spontaneous pushing during birth. Relationship to perineal outcomes. J Nurse Midwifery. 1999;44:36-39.

16. Dietz HP, Bennett MJ. The effect of childbirth on pelvic organ mobility. Obstet Gynecol. 2003;102:223-228.

17. Van Kessel K, Reed S, Newton K, Meier A, Lentz G. The second stage of labor and stress urinary incontinence. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001;184:1571-1575.

18. Viktrup L, Lose G. Epidural anesthesia during labor and stress incontinence after delivery. Obstet Gynecol. 1993;82:984-986.

19. Eason E, Feldman P. Much ado about a little cut: is episiotomy worthwhile? Obstet Gynecol. 2000;95:616-618.

20. Hamilton BE, Martin JA, Sutton PD; Division of Vital Statistics. Births: Preliminary Data for 2002. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Vital Statistics Report. 2003;51:7-8. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr51/ nvsr51_11.pdf . Accessed November 4, 2004.

21. Devendra K, Arulkumaran S. Should doctors perform an elective caesarean section on request? Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2003;32:577-581.

22. Land R, Parry E, Rane A, Wilson D. Personal preferences of obstetricians towards childbirth. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2001;41:249-252.

23. Quinlivan JA, Petersen RW, Nichols CN. Patient preference the leading indication for elective Caesarean section in public patients—results of a 2-year prospective audit in a teaching hospital. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 1999;39:207-214.

24. Kegel AH. Progressive resistance exercise in the functional restoration of the perineal muscles. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1948;56:238-249.

25. Kegel AH. The physiologic treatment of poor tone and function of the genital muscles and of urinary stress incontinence. West J Surg Obstet Gynecol. 1949;57:527-535.

26. Kegel AH, Powell TO. The physiologic treatment of urinary stress incontinence. J Urol. 1950;63:808-814.

27. Kegel AH. Physiologic therapy for urinary stress incontinence. JAMA. 1951;146:915-917.

28. Sampselle CM, Miller JM, Mims BL, Delancey JO, Ashton-Miller JA, Antonakos CL. Effect of pelvic muscle exercise on transient incontinence during pregnancy and after birth. Obstet Gynecol. 1998;91:406-412.

29. Mørkved S, Bo K, Schei B, Salvesen KA. Pelvic floor muscle training during pregnancy to prevent urinary incontinence: a single-blind randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2003;101:313-319.

30. Chiarelli P, Cockburn J. Promoting urinary continence in women after delivery: a randomized controlled trial. BMJ. 2002;324:1241-1252.

31. Harvey MA. Pelvic floor exercises during and after pregnancy: a systematic review of their role in preventing pelvic floor dysfunction. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2003;25:487-498.

32. Reilly ET, Freeman RM, Waterfield MR, Waterfield AE, Steggles P, Pedlar F. Prevention of postpartum stress incontinence in primigravidae with increased bladder neck mobility: a randomized controlled trial of antenatal pelvic floor exercises. BJOG. 2002;109:68-76.

33. Miller JM, Ashton-Miller JA, DeLancey JO. A pelvic muscle precontraction can reduce cough-related urine loss in selected women with mild SUI. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1998;46:870-874.

34. Miller JM, Perucchini D, Carchidi LT, DeLancey JO, Ashton-Miller J. Pelvic floor muscle contraction during a cough and decreased vesical neck mobility. Obstet Gynecol. 2001;97:255-260.

35. Miller JM, Kasper C, Sampselle C. Review of muscle physiology with application to pelvic muscle exercise. Urol Nurs. 1994;14:92-97.

36. Chiarelli P, Murphy B, Cockburn J. Women's knowledge, practices, and intentions regarding correct pelvic floor exercises. Neurourol Urodyn. 2003;22:246-249.

37. Chiarelli P, Murphy B, Cockburn J. Promoting urinary continence in postpartum women: 12-month follow-up data from a randomized controlled trial. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2004;15:99-105.

38. Wilson PD, Bo K, Hay-Smith J, et al. Conservative treatment in women. In: Abrams P, Cardozo L, Khoury S, Wein A, eds. Incontinence. 2nd ed. Plymouth, UK: Health Publication Ltd; 2002:573-624.

39. National Association For Continence Web site. Available at: http://www.nafc.org. Accessed December 16, 2004.

40. Andersson K-E. Pharmacological treatment of urinary incontinence. In: Abrams P, Cardozo L, Khoury S, Wein A, eds. Incontinence. 2nd ed. Plymouth, UK: Health Publication Ltd; 2002:481-511.

41. Newman DK. Managing and Treating Urinary Incontinence. Baltimore, Md: Health Professions Press; 2002:105, 113, 176-177, 184-185.

42. Cannon TW, Yoshimura N, Chancellor MB. Innovations in pharmacotherapy for stress urinary incontinence. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2003;14:367-372.

43. Ishiko O, Hirai K, Sumi T, Tatsuta I, Ogita S. Hormone replacement therapy plus pelvic floor muscle exercise for postmenopausal stress incontinence. A randomized, controlled trial. J Reprod Med. 2001;46:213-220.

44. Zinner NR, Koke SC, Viktrup L. Pharmacotherapy for stress urinary incontinence: present and future options. Drugs. 2004;64:1503-1516.

45. Thor KB, Donatucci C. Central nervous system control of the lower urinary tract: new pharmacological approaches to stress urinary incontinence in women. J Urol. 2004;172:27-33.

46. Dmochowski RR, Miklos JR, Norton PA, et al; Duloxetine Urinary Incontinence Study Group. Duloxetine versus placebo for the treatment of North American women with stress urinary incontinence. J Urol. 2003;170:1259-1263.

47. Norton PA, Zinner NR, Yalcin I, Bump RC; Duloxetine Urinary Incontinence Study Group. Duloxetine versus placebo in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;187:40-48.

48. Smith T. Surgical treatment of incontinence in women. In: Abrams P, Cardozo L, Khoury S, Wein A, eds. Incontinence. 2nd ed. Plymouth, UK: Health Publication Ltd; 2002:823-863.

AGE-ASSOCIATED RISKS AND STRATEGIES FOR THE PREVENTION
AND MANAGEMENT OF STRESS URINARY INCONTINENCE
IN COMMUNITY-DWELLING OLDER WOMEN

Sandra Engberg, PhD, RN, CRNP

University of Pittsburgh School of Nursing, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

REFERENCES

1. Bo K. Urinary incontinence, pelvic floor dysfunction, exercise and sport. Sports Med. 2004;7:451-464.

2. Landi F, Cesari M, Russo A, Onder G, Lattanzio F, Bernabei R; the Silvernet-HC Study Group. Potentially reversible risk factors and urinary incontinence in frail older people living in community. Age Ageing. 2003;32:194-199.

3. LaSala CA, Kuchel GA. Evaluation and management of urinary incontinence in elderly women. Conn Med. 2003;67:491-495.

4. Ouslander JG. Urinary incontinence in the geriatric population. Nippon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi [Jpn J Geriatr]. 1991;28:484-492.

5. Burgio K, Diokno AC, Herzog AR, Hjalmas K, Lapitan MC. Epidemiology and natural history of urinary incontinence. In: Abrams P, Cardozo L, Khoury S, Wein A, eds. Incontinence. Plymouth, UK: Health Publication Ltd; 2002:165-201.

6. Holroyd-Leduc JM, Straus SE. Management of urinary incontinence in women. JAMA. 2004;291:986-995.

7. Brown JS, Grady D, Ouslander JG, Herzog AR, Varner RE, Posner SF; the Heart & Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Research Group. Prevalence of urinary incontinence and associated risk factors in postmenopausal women. Obstet Gynecol. 1999;94:66-70.

8. Diokno AC, Brock BM, Herzog AR, Bromberg J. Medical correlates of urinary incontinence in the elderly. Urology. 1990;36:129-138.

9. Tannenbaum C, Bachand G, Dubeau CE, Kuchel GA. Experience of an incontinence clinic for older women: no apparent age limit for potential physical and psychological benefits. J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 2001;10:751-756.

10. Thom D. Variation in estimates of urinary incontinence prevalence in the community: effects of differences in definition, population characteristics, and study type. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1998;46:473-480.

11. Mason L, Glenn S, Walton I, Appleton C. The prevalence of stress incontinence during pregnancy and following delivery. Midwifery. 1999;15:120-128.

12. Chiarelli P, Brown WJ. Leaking urine in Australian women: prevalence and associated conditions. Women Health. 1999;29:1-13.

13. Brown JS, Seeley DG, Fong J, Black DM, Ensrud KE, Grady D. Urinary incontinence in older women: Who is at risk? Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Obstet Gynecol. 1996:87:715-721.

14. Thom DH, van den Eeden SK, Brown JS. Evaluation of parturition and other reproductive variables as risk factors for urinary incontinence in later life. Obstet Gynecol. 1997;90:983-989.

15. Jueng-Anuwat P, Roongruangsilp U, Kochakarn W, Ratana-Olarn K. Risk factors for stress urinary incontinence in middle aged and elderly Thai women. J Med Assoc Thai. 2001;84:1121-1125.

16. Mommsen S, Foldspang A. Body mass index and adult female urinary incontinence. World J Urol. 1994;12:319-322.

17. Dallosso HM, McGrother CW, Matthews RJ, Donaldson MMK; the Leicestershire MRC Incontinence Study Group. The association of diet and other lifestyle factors with overactive bladder and stress incontinence: a longitudinal study in women. BJU Int. 2003;92:69-77.

18. Parazzini F, Chiaffarino F, Lavezzari M, Giambanco V; the VIVA Study Group. Risk factors for stress, urge or mixed urinary incontinence in Italy. BJOG. 2003;110:927-933.

19. Jackson RA, Vittinghoff E, Kanaya AM, et al; the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Urinary incontinence in elderly women: Findings from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Obstet Gynecol. 2004;104:301-307.

20. Subak LL, Johnson C, Whitcomb E, Boban D, Saxton J, Brown JS. Does weight loss improve incontinence in moderately obese women? Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2002;13:40-43.

21. Frigg A, Peterli R, Peters T, Ackermann C, Tondelli P. Reduction in co-morbidities 4 years after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. Obes Surg. 2004;14:216-223.

22. Bump RC, Sugerman HJ, Fantl JA, McClish DK. Obesity and lower urinary tract function in women: effect of surgically induced weight loss. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1992;167:392-397.

23. Sugerman HJ, Felton WL III, Salvant JB Jr, Sismanis A, Kellum JM. Effects of surgically induced weight loss on idiopathic intracranial hypertension in morbid obesity. Neurology. 1995;45:1655-1659.

24. Deitel M, Stone E, Kassam HA, Wilk EJ, Sutherland DJ. Gynecologic-obstetric changes after loss of massive excess weight following bariatric surgery. J Am Coll Nutr. 1988;7:147-153.

25. Sherburn M, Guthrie JR, Dudley EC, O'Connell HE, Dennerstein L. Is incontinence associated with menopause? Obstet Gynecol. 2001;98:628-633.

26. Kjølhede P, Hallbook O, Ryden G, Sjodahl R. Anorectal manometry in women with urinary stress incontinence. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1997;76:266-270.

27. Bump RC, McClish DK. Cigarette smoking and urinary incontinence in women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1992;167(5):1213-1218.

28. Sampselle CM, Harlow SD, Skurnick J, Brubaker L, Bondarenko I. Urinary incontinence predictors and life impact in ethnically diverse perimenopausal women. Obstet Gynecol. 2002;100:1230-1238.

29. Brown JS, Sawaya G, Thom DH, Grady D. Hysterectomy and urinary incontinence: a systematic review. Lancet. 2000;356:535-539.

30. Mikou F, Abbassi O, Benjelloun A, Matar N, el Mansouri A. Prevalence of urinary incontinence in Moroccan women. Report of 1,000 cases [in French]. Ann Urol (Paris). 2001;35:280-289.

31. van der Vaart CH, van der Bom JG, de Leeuw JRJ, Roovers JPWR, Heintz APM. The contribution of hysterectomy to the occurrence of urge and stress urinary incontinence symptoms. BJOG. 2002;109:149-154.

32. Hextall A. Oestrogens and lower urinary tract function. Maturitas. 2000;36:83-92.

33. Robinson D, Cardozo LD. The role of estrogens in female lower urinary tract dysfunction. Urology. 2003;62(4 suppl 1):45-51.

34. Grady D, Brown JS, Vittinghoff E, Applegate W, Varner E, Snyder T; the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Research Group. Obstet Gynecol. 2001:97:116-120.

35. Women's Health Initiative Writing Group. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women. JAMA. 2002; 288:321-333.

36. Palmer MH. Primary prevention research on incontinence in older adults. West J Nurs Res. 2002;24:390-405.

37. Hahn I, Milsom I, Ohlsson BL, Ekelund P, Uhlemann C, Fall M. Comparative assessment of pelvic floor function using vaginal cones, vaginal digital palpation and vaginal pressure measurements. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1996;41:269-274.

38. Verelst M, Leivseth G. Are fatigue and disturbances in pre-programmed activity of pelvic floor muscles associated with female stress urinary incontinence? Neurourol Urodyn. 2004;23:143-147.

39. Miller JM, Perucchini D, Carchidi LT, DeLancey JO, Ashton-Miller J. Pelvic floor muscle contraction during a cough and decreased vesical neck mobility. Obstet Gynecol. 2001;97:255-260.

40. Gunnarsson M, Mattiasson A. Female stress, urge, and mixed urinary incontinence are associated with chronic and progressive pelvic floor/vaginal neuromuscular disorder: An investigation of 317 healthy and incontinent women using vaginal surface electromyography. Neurourol Urodyn. 1999;18:613-621.

41. Diokno AC, Sampselle CM, Herzog AR, et al. Prevention of urinary incontinence by behavioral modification program: a randomized, controlled trial among older women in the community. J Urol. 2004;171:1165-1171.

42. Chiarelli P, Murphy B, Cockburn J. Women's knowledge, practises, and intentions regarding correct pelvic floor exercises. Neurourol Urodyn. 2003;22:246-249.

43. Dougherty MC, Dwyer JW, Pendergast JF, et al. A randomized trial of behavioral management for continence with older rural women. Res Nurs Health. 2002;25:3-13.

44. Fantl JA, Wyman JF, McClish DK, et al. Efficacy of bladder training in older women with urinary incontinence. JAMA. 1991;265:609-613.

45. McDowell BJ, Engberg S, Sereika S, et al. Effectiveness of behavioral therapy to treat incontinence in homebound older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1999;47:309-318.

46. Mørkved S, Bø K, Fjørtoft T. Effect of adding biofeedback to pelvic floor muscle training to treat urodynamic stress incontinence. Obstet Gynecol. 2002;100:730-739.

47. Nygaard IE, Kreder KJ, Lepic MM, Fountain KA, Rhomberg AT. Efficacy of pelvic floor muscle exercises in women with stress, urge and mixed urinary incontinence. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1996;174:120-125.

48. Teunissen TAM, de Jonge A, van Weel C, Lagro-Janssen ALM. Treating urinary incontinence in the elderly—conservative measures that work: a systematic review. J Fam Pract. 2004;53:25-32.

49. Wyman JF, Fantl JA, McClish DK, Bump RC. Comparative efficacy of behavioral interventions in the management of female urinary incontinence. Continence Program for Women Research Group. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998;179:999-1007.

50. Herbison P, Plevnik S, Mantle J. Weighted vaginal cones for urinary incontinence ( Cochrane Review). 2004. Available at: http://www.cochrane.org/cochrane/revabstr/AB002114.htm. Accessed November 30, 2004.

51. Yamanishi T, Yasuda K, Sakakibara R, Hattori T, Ito H, Murakami S. Pelvic floor electrical stimulation in the treatment of stress incontinence: an investigational study and a placebo controlled double-blind trial. J Urol. 1997;158:2127-2131.

52. Brubaker L, Benson JT, Bent A, Clark A, Shott S. Transvaginal electrical stimulation for female incontinence. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1997;177:536-540.

53. Smith JJ III. Intravaginal stimulation randomized trial. J Urol. 1996;155:127-130.

54. Sand PK, Richardson DA, Staskin DR, et al. Pelvic floor electrical stimulation in the treatment of genuine stress incontinence: a multicenter, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995;173:72-79.

55. Hay-Smith EJC, Bo K, Berghmans LCM, Hendriks HJM, de Bie RA, van Waalwijk van Doorn ESC. Pelvic floor training for urinary incontinence in women. Cochrane Review [serial online]. 2004. Available at : http://www.cochrane.org/cochrane/revabstr/AB001407.htm. Accessed November 30, 2004.

56. Cammu H, Van Nylen M, Amy JJ. A 10-year follow-up after Kegel pelvic floor muscle exercises for genuine stress incontinence. BJU Int. 2000;85:655-658.

57. Holley RL, Varner RE, Kerns DJ, Mestecky PJ. Long-term failure of pelvic floor musculature exercises in treatment of genuine stress incontinence. South Med J. 1995;88:547-549.

58. Cannon TW, Yoshimura N, Chancellor MB. Innovations in pharmacotherapy for stress urinary incontinence. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2003;14:367-372.

59. Andersson K-E, Appell R, Awad S, et al. Pharmacological treatment of urinary incontinence. In: Abrams P, Cardozo L, Khoury S, Wein A, eds. Incontinence. 2nd ed. Plymouth, UK: Health Publication Ltd; 2002:481-511.

60. Walters MD, Realini JP, Dougherty M. Nonsurgical treatment of urinary incontinence. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 1992;4:554-558.

61. Zinner NR, Koke SC, Viktrup L. Pharmacotherapy for stress urinary incontinence: present and future options. Drugs. 2004;64:1503-1516.

62. Moore K. Duloxetine: a new approach for treating stress urinary incontinence. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2004;86:S53-S62.

63. Dmochowski RR, Miklos JR, Norton PA, Zinner NR, Yalcin I, Bump RC; the Duloxetine Urinary Incontinence Study Group. Duloxetine versus placebo for the treatment of North American women with stress urinary incontinence. J Urol. 2003;170:1259-1263.

64. Doughty DB. Promoting continence: simple strategies with major impact. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2003;49:46-52.

APPENDIX

Leslie S. Wooldridge, MSN, RNCS, GNP

Diversified Nurse Consulting, LTD, Grand Rapids, Michigan

REFERENCES

1. Andersson K-E. Pharmacological treatment of urinary incontinence. In: Abrams P, Cardozo L, Khoury S, Wein A, eds. Incontinence. 2nd ed. Plymouth, UK: Health Publication Ltd; 2002:481-511.

2. Cannon TW, Yoshimura N, Chancellor MB. Innovations in pharmacotherapy for stress urinary incontinence. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2003;14:367-372.

3. Dmochowski RR, Miklos JR, Norton PA, Zinner NR, Yalcin I, Bump RC; the Duloxetine Urinary Incontinence Study Group. Duloxetine versus placebo for the treatment of North American women with stress urinary incontinence. J Urol. 2003;170:1259-1263.

4. Holroyd-Leduc JM, Straus SE. Management of urinary incontinence in women. JAMA. 2004;291:986-995.

5. Newman DK. Managing and Treating Urinary Incontinence. Baltimore, Md: Health Professions Press; 2002:105, 113, 176-177, 184-185.

6. Norton PA, Zinner NR, Yalcin I, Bump RC; the Duloxetine Urinary Incontinence Study Group. Duloxetine versus placebo in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;187:40-48.

7. Bø K. Urinary incontinence, pelvic floor dysfunction, exercise and sport. Sports Med. 2004;34:451-464.

8. Fantl JA, Cardozo L, McClish DK. Estrogen therapy in the management of urinary incontinence in postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis. First report of the Hormones and Urogenital Therapy Committee. Obstet Gynecol. 1994;83:12-18.

9 Women's Health Initiative Writing Group. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women. JAMA. 2002; 288:321-333.

10. Bø K. Vaginal weight cones. Theoretical framework, effect on pelvic floor muscle strength and female stress urinary incontinence. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1995;74:87-92.

11. Bø K, Talseth T, Holme I. Single blind randomised controlled trial of pelvic floor exercises, electrical stimulation, vaginal cones, and no treatment in management of genuine stress incontinence in women. BMJ. 1999;318:487-493.

12. Bø K, Maanum M. Does vaginal electrical stimulation cause pelvic floor muscle contraction? A pilot study. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl. 1996;179:39-45.

13. Eriksen BC, Eik-Nes SH. Long-term electrostimulation of the pelvic floor: primary therapy in female stress incontinence? Urol Int. 1989;44:90-95.

14. Wilson PD, Bo K, Hay-Smith J, et al. Conservative treatment in women. In: Abrams P, Cardozo L, Khoury S, Wein A, eds. Incontinence. 2nd ed. Plymouth, UK: Health Publication Ltd; 2002:573-624.

15. Farrell SA. Pessaries for the management of stress urinary incontinence. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2001;23:1184-1189.

16. Lightner DJ. Review of the available urethral bulking agents. Curr Opin Urol. 2002;12:333-338.

17. Herschorn S, Carr LK. Vaginal reconstructive surgery for sphincteric incontinence and prolapse. In: Walsh PC, Retik AB, Vaughan ED Jr., et al. Campbell's Urology. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders; 2002:1092-1139.

18. Webster GD, Guralnick ML. Retropubic suspension surgery for female incontinence. In: Walsh PC, Retik AB, Vaughan ED Jr., et al. Campbell's Urology. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders; 2002:1140-1150.

19. Tseng LH, Wang AC, Lin YH, Li SJ, Ko YJ. Randomized comparison of the suprapubic arc sling procedure vs tension-free vaginal taping for stress incontinent women. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. In press.

20. McGuire EJ, Clemens Q. Pubovaginal slings. In: Walsh PC, Retik AB, Vaughan ED Jr., et al. Campbell's Urology. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders; 2002:1151-1171.

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